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Итоги федерального проекта «80 фактов о блокаде Ленинграда»

Итоги федерального проекта «80 фактов о блокаде Ленинграда»
 
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В дар музею от потомков купеческой династии Колокольниковых

В дар музею от потомков купеческой династии Колокольниковых
 
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Приглашаем стать волонтерами культуры

Приглашаем стать волонтерами культуры
 
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Презентация книги «Менделеевы. Хроника семьи»

Презентация книги «Менделеевы. Хроника семьи»
 
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Emilia Yakovlevna Shanks: “Hiring a governess”

“If you look at the painting “Hiring a Governess,” a real duel of views is unfolding here. We see that the nanny of the children worries most of all here; she raised them, educated them, nurtured them. The governess herself looks at the children and evaluates her future pupils. The boy looks with interest and even enthusiasm, and the girl is tense and closed. Her emotions and posture mirror that of the governess being interviewed. We see subtle psychologism in the works of Emilia Shanks; her strong point is not social conflict, but psychological conflict,” the curator of the collection describes the work.<br> Unfortunately, the author’s contemporaries did not appreciate this quality in painting. Psychology and children were not in fashion. The painting was painted in the 1890s. She came to Tyumen from the Tobolsk Museum. It is not known for certain how she ended up in Tobolsk.<br> Tyumen residents and city guests love this painting very much, often lingering near it at the exhibition. In addition, it is used in psychology classes. Students analyze the intriguing moment of the teacher’s meeting with future students, describe the characteristics of all participants in this exciting scene, and discuss the artistically and vividly recreated picturesque interior of a house in the Art Nouveau style of the late 19th century.<br> “The furnishings and objects that we see in the painting “Hiring a Governess” could just be seen in the famous store of the Shanks-Bolin trading company, where they sold fabrics, dresses, accessories, and jewelry. Emilia herself, despite the wealth of her family, dressed modestly and did not wear expensive jewelry,” explained Elena Ryndina.<br> The Shanks family left Russia in 1913; Emilia sold her paintings before leaving. They were sold to private collections; there are few of her works in museums.<br> Perhaps new facts from the life of such a warm and sensitive artist will be revealed in the course of a new scientific study conducted by an Englishwoman, professor of Russian and European art at the University of Cambridge, Rosalyn Blakeslee. She came to the Tyumen region thousands of kilometers away to look at one single work - the painting “Hiring a Governess” by Emilia Shanks.<br> Tyumen residents have a unique opportunity to see beautiful works of art and hear exciting stories about them.
 
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Karl Pavlovich Bryullov: “Oedipus and Antigone”

The painting “Oedipus and Antigone,” which is kept in the Tyumen Museum, was painted by Karl Bryullov in 1821 at the request of the Society for the Encouragement of Artists. This organization was created by philanthropists who wanted to help Russian masters in their promotion.<br> Bryullov was a very talented aspiring painter, but he had a misunderstanding with the Academy of Arts. He believed that it was time for him to go on a “retirement” trip abroad. “Pensioners” were those authors who received a “pension” - funds for education.<br> “Trips to study abroad were paid for for the holders of small and large gold and silver medals,” comments Elena Ryndina. The duration of the trip depended on the level of rewards. The painters themselves chose which country they would go to and which master they would study with. Mostly we went to Italy, Germany, and France to look at the originals and learn from examples of European masterpieces.”<br> <br> Bryullov created the painting “Oedipus and Antigone” simultaneously with the painting “Repentance of Polyneices”. It was for these works that the Society for the Encouragement of Artists awarded the painter a trip to Italy, where he went with his older brother Alexander. Thus, the painting “Oedipus and Antigone” can be considered a kind of trip to Italy for the Bryullov brothers.<br> The canvas depicts the plot of the ancient Greek tragedy by Sophocles “Oedipus the King”. Oedipus is the son of the king of the city of Thebes, Laius, and Queen Jocasta. The father ordered his child to be thrown into the abyss, since he was predicted to die at the hands of his son. But the boy was picked up and raised by shepherds. When he became a young man, one day in a road collision he accidentally killed Lai, not knowing that it was his father. Arriving in Thebes, he solved the riddle of the Sphinx, thereby freeing the city from this terrible monster. As a reward he received the hand of Queen Jocasta, not knowing that it was his mother, and became the ruler of Thebes.<br> After 15 years, the gods send a pestilence to the city. The oracle announces that it will stop when the murderer of Laius is expelled, and reveals a terrible truth to Oedipus. Jocasta commits suicide out of shame by hanging herself with her belt. Horrified by what he had done, Oedipus blinds himself and goes into exile. Everyone turns away from him, and only the eldest daughter Antigone voluntarily follows her father in his wanderings, serving him as support and support.<br> “The canvas was sold to a collector whose name remains unknown,” explained the curator of the “Paintings” collection. - For a long time, the trace of the painting was lost. After the Great Patriotic War, it was found in Leningrad in the attic of one of the houses, rolled up with a layer of paint inside and significantly contaminated. The restoration of the damaged painting was carried out unprofessionally - the painting layer was washed off before the underpainting. Then it was acquired for a private collection, and in 1959, through the Ministry of Culture, the canvas was sold to the Tyumen Art Gallery.”<br> <br> In 1822, Karl Bryullov translated the composition of the painting “Oedipus and Antigone” into lithography for an album called “Lithographic Trinkets.” Today it is kept in the State Russian Museum in St. Petersburg. The lithograph was compared with the painting and the authorship was confirmed.<br> “There are significant differences between a lithograph and a painting. We sometimes call this work a "ruin" due to its condition after unprofessional restoration, but it is nonetheless an important piece of historical evidence. It was this painting that became Bryullov’s ticket to Italy, where he became a famous artist, painting a large-scale painting “The Last Day of Pompeii,” which brought him worldwide fame,” summarized Elena Ryndina.<br> Now the painting “Oedipus and Antigone” is available to visitors of the permanent exhibition, despite the mistakes of the restorers, the painting is impressive and gives an idea of the work of Karl Bryullov.
 
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Ilya Efimovich Repin: “Portrait of Mary Olive”

Art connoisseurs say: “Repin in painting is our everything.” This is an artist for whom all genres were available: from historical paintings to portraits, landscapes, still lifes...&lt;br&gt;<br>  &lt;br&gt;<br>  In Tyumen there is a stunning work by Ilya Repin - “Portrait of Mary Konstantinovna Olive”.&lt;br&gt;<br>  &lt;br&gt;<br>  The main character was Maria Olive, whose father had French roots. Her grandfather fought against the Russians during the War of 1812. But after the victory of the Russian Empire, he enlisted in the Russian army and after some time even became the adjutant of Grand Duke Konstantin Romanov. When Olive's son was born, the Grand Duke became his godfather, in whose honor the boy was named Constantine. He would later become the father of Maria Olive, depicted in Repin's famous portrait. Mary's mother Olive was one of the relatives of the famous Mamontov family.&lt;br&gt;<br>  &lt;br&gt;<br>  “Maria Olive was not a beauty, especially if you look at her other portraits, but she had a special influence on men,” reflects Elena Ryndina. - For example, a sketch of her portrait was made by Mikhail Vrubel, who was fascinated by her and even wanted to marry her. Vrubel wrote to his parents in a letter that he had found his ideal, a bride for himself. But the pragmatism characteristic of the Olive family made itself felt, and Mara married Savva Mamontov’s nephew. Yuri Mamontov was her first husband.”&lt;br&gt;<br>  If we return to the portrait from the Tyumen collection painted by Repin, it was made in 1906. Maria Olive came to visit him in “Penati” - that was the name of the estate in the village of Kuokkale near St. Petersburg, now the village of Repino.&lt;br&gt;<br>  The writer Korney Chukovsky, who was the artist’s neighbor, often watched Repin’s work, came to his house and often entertained his guests while they posed. Chukovsky, in his memoirs about the artist, recorded the fact that Repin, being a perfectionist, always strived to bring his work to perfection, and this did not always work to his advantage.&lt;br&gt;<br>  Later, Chukovsky used the image of Olive in a fairy tale about a crocodile who swallowed the sun.&lt;br&gt;<br>  &lt;br&gt;<br>  “The portrait was completed very quickly, and, apparently, Mara Konstantinovna immediately took this work from the author. And Repin did not have the opportunity to finalize the picture. He was an amazing psychologist, he captured everything that was most valuable - the image, emotions, features of a person, and could transfer it to canvas. But when the artist tried to refine his works, he could make them worse than the original version. Sometimes Repin did not finish his works and simply destroyed them because he did not like his creations.”&lt;br&gt;<br>  It is curious that when Mara posed for Repin, she was already in her second marriage. Her husband was military sailor Dmitry Sverbeev. Moreover, in her new relationship, a kind of love triangle arose. General Ivan Georgievich Erdeli kept a diary dedicated to Mara during the civil war. She was his beloved, remaining Sverbeev’s wife.&lt;br&gt;<br>  “If we look at the portrait of Mara Olive, we will see that she is depicted in an unusual way, most likely it is a theatrical costume. On her head is a Turkish fez, which women did not wear, especially in Russia. Some experts see in this detail an expression of women's freedom and emancipation. Mara appears as a woman who is ready to boldly try on any image. She demonstrates to us her independence from the opinions of others, from established rules and boundaries,” said Elena Vladimirovna.&lt;br&gt;<br>  When the White Army retreated, General Erdeli was in the south for some time. He met his lover several times. The owner of the house where the general lived left her memories of Mara Olive. Based on her testimony, one can judge how different the female perception of this heroine was from the male one. Although it is possible that there is a certain amount of female envy in this story. The mistress of the house witnessed the meeting of Olive and Erdely after a long separation. Here's what she wrote:&lt;br&gt;<br>  “Madame Maria Konstantinovna Sverbeeva was very uninteresting in appearance. Tall, very thin, flat, breastless, brown-haired, with green-yellow eyes. The lower part of the face, so to speak, was rat-like, reminiscent of a rat sniffing out something. My husband, who appreciated a beautiful figure and bust in a woman’s appearance, always expressed surprise at what Ivan Georgievich was interested in. She has a figure on which there was nothing for her hand to grab onto. She dressed smartly, with great taste, and was extremely neat and clean. She paid a lot of attention to self-care. Despite this appearance, Maria Konstantinovna somehow had a charming effect on the person with whom she spoke. She knew how to speak to the carpenter in such a way that he understood her and was interested in talking to her. She also occupied the center of attention in conversations in high society. At parties, when acquaintances and friends gathered, everyone’s attention was focused on Maria Konstantinovna. She is very educated, comprehensively developed, has traveled all over Europe, and has traveled a lot. Fluent in French, German and English. An interesting conversationalist and an intelligent woman.”&lt;br&gt;<br>  &lt;br&gt;<br> Only Repin managed to capture her victorious power over men in a portrait<br>
 
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Ivan Konstantinovich Aivazovsky: “Yalta”

What is interesting about this picture? “Yalta” is small in size - 58 cm wide and 94 cm long. Looking at it, we can see the artist’s traditional techniques, which are so loved by connoisseurs of his talent. We are talking about a masterful rendering of sea water, with its color shifting from dark indigo to turquoise, when a stunning lacy foam is depicted. We also see the image of a ship that is either wrecked or simply beating in the waves...<br> “This is a late work, written in 1899, a year before the author’s death,” comments Elena Ryndina. “During this period, he tried to write more, admitting: “82 years make me rush.” Aivazovsky is a very prolific artist; according to one version, he created more than 5 thousand paintings during his life. Many of his works were sold to private collections, so it is possible that not all of his paintings have been counted. The process of recording works is complicated by the fact that this artist had many imitators – copyists.”<br> Romanticism is characterized by the perception of nature as an element with which man struggles as with his destiny, fate. The sea often acts as a metaphor for life; it is compared to the “everyday” sea. How does a person resist the elements, will he emerge victorious? This is one of the favorite motifs of romantic artists.<br> “The painting “Yalta” also has direct historical significance. It was once a small resort town. And Aivazovsky was one of the popularizers of the Crimean coast and its nature. However, he never painted the sea from life, because he believed that it was impossible to capture the constantly changing elements... He had an excellent photographic memory, and he wrote from memory. Over the years, the artist has developed his own technology and understanding of what goes with what. He could literally create a real masterpiece in just a few hours in front of an astonished public,” says the curator of the painting collection.<br> By the way, the name of this painting “Yalta” also raises questions; in some documents it is listed as “Storm”. Therefore, what is the author’s title of the work is a prospect for further scientific research. Not everything is completely clear with this work, art critics say.<br> Very often, in the case of Aivazovsky, museum visitors do not believe that they are seeing original paintings: “Are these copies? It can’t be that we have the original in Tyumen!” Tour guides often have to convince guests of the authenticity of paintings by famous artists.
 
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Painting by Wassily Kandinsky, located in the Tyumen collection of paintings

The story of Kandinsky’s Tyumen painting is almost a detective story. Only many years later, unwinding the spiral of facts and studying documents, art historians were able to find out the author's name of the abstraction that came from the artist's brush.<br> “His work appears in our collection under a non-author’s title – “Composition”. Why not under copyright? – Elena Ryndina reflects. - The picture was painted in 1916. When the work was transferred from Tobolsk to Tyumen, it arrived as a “Still Life” by an unknown artist. Previously, there was a version according to which Kandinsky’s authorship was based on its restoration. The painting was heavily soiled; its background was restored and the paint layer was cleaned. It was believed that it was then that the K-16 monogram was discovered, indicating the author’s family.”<br> The passport of the painting indicates that the restoration took place in 1979-80 at the Omsk Art Museum. But there is also an earlier recording from 1974. Even then, the author was indicated - Kandinsky, and his work was listed as “Abstract Composition”. The recording was made by Semyon Ivensky, deputy director of the Tyumen Art Gallery for scientific work.<br> “Kandinsky’s painting entered the Tyumen funds in Tobolsk,” said Elena Vladimirovna. - When Panteley Chukomin came to Moscow to replenish the Tobolsk Museum of Fine Arts with new works, he met personally with Wassily Kandinsky, the head of the Museum of Pictorial Culture. In addition, Kandinsky headed the purchasing commission, and was also the head of the Fine Arts Department of the People's Commissariat for Education. He himself selected objects for transfer to provincial museums, and in the act of transfer to Tobolsk, 13 paintings bear his signature, as well as the signature of the famous avant-garde artist, head of the Museum Bureau Alexander Rodchenko.”<br> Some of the works of the avant-garde artists, then delivered from Moscow, in the morning. Of the 13 paintings, 5 are now stored in Tobolsk, and 4 in Tyumen.<br> In the act of transfer, Kandinsky’s work was listed as number 207; it did not have any name. When traveling abroad it appears as “Untitled”.<br> <br> “In 1958, art historian Will Grohmann published a book entitled Wassily Kandinsky: Life and Work. Gromann was personally acquainted with Kandinsky and had access to his diaries. The avant-garde artist recorded events related to his paintings in his diary. In the published book, a list of all manifestations of Kandinsky was compiled, most likely, by the artist himself. In this list, under serial number 207, appears the painting “Untitled” with its location in Tobolsk,” commented Elena Ryndina.<br> Now all that remains is to rename the painting and give it the correct name.<br> <br> “I hope that soon we will have such a process as re-attribution, and we will assign our painting the name “No. the Bureau. . When she participated in Kandinsky's first solo exhibition (after his emigration in December 1921) in 1989 at the Tretyakov Gallery, she was given the title "Composition" in the exhibition catalogue.<br> <br> Today, Tyumen residents and guests of the city can see this picture with an amazing fate at a permanent exhibition. It is quite difficult to decipher what the avant-garde artist depicts. But every viewer is given the right to see his own interpretation of the artist’s work.<br> According to one version, this work dates back to the author’s period of throwing. He quickly returned from Germany in 1914 (he was expelled for 24 hours) due to the outbreak of the First World War and ended up in pre-revolutionary Russia. In 1915, being in a state of internal discord, he did not paint a single picture.<br> Kandinsky was created to produce the same impression on people as painting. The picture, as it sounds, creates a mood, touches the strings of the soul.<br> One of the options for reading the picture is a “cosmic vision” of objects. It’s as if the author looked from above and had a spherical vision, similar to how objects are recorded from the heights of various drones today.
 
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